Darshana (inspection) is one of the methods of clinical assessment of disease. Inspection of different internal organs done by X-rays also come under darshana method.
Darshana in Ayurveda means complete inspection of the body. It is a way of assessing the nature of the disease through different tests and examination. It is derived from the first triad described in Trividh Pariksha for the assessment of diseases. It is actually the first method of clinical assessment. A careful inquiry and thorough physical examination of the patient concerning his constitution and illness are the prime factors necessary to elicit all the data of the case. The correct interpretation of these facts and systematic reasoning based on them, are essential to arrive at the accurate diagnosis and prognosis and to decide the right line of treatment. Methodical investigation and logical decision are the foundation of this science of medicine.
Factors For Inspection
In order to determine the kind of ailment patient is suffering from and to determine its intensity and seriousness, a very detailed diagnosis of the disease is necessary. The doctor then on the basis of the discrepancies from normal body conditions determines the problems in the body of the patients. He figures out two to three possibilities and cross checks them in order to test his hypothesis. While inspection of the body he looks out for those factors which can give him a clue about the disease. In this method, the person is totally assessed by the physician and the following things are noted:
- Symptoms of the disease
- Strength and Stamina of the body
- Color of the skin
- Shape of the body.
- Dryness or excessive oiliness of skin and hair.
- Eyes - color, features etc.
- Nails-its brittleness and color
There are certain rules and regulations regarding the assessment of disease in Ayurveda. It is said that until the examinations are done in a correct atmosphere, the result derived can’t be true. That is why factors like light, hygiene and state of the patient are various important factors and should be in an ideal state during the examination. It is believed that slightest of discrepancy in the assessment can lead to a completely wrong treatment. Thus, while examination of the patient the factors mentioned below must be kept in concern-
- Assessment should be done as far as possible in sunlight because the inference drawn in artificial light can be wrong.
- The place should be clean and calm.
- The patient should be relaxed and at ease.
- Examination of the patient should be the only concern of the physician.
- Assessment should be done from head to toe.
- The microscopic pathological investigations done now-a-days can also be included under inspection.
- Certain points that are instructed by the physician prior to the examination like being ‘empty stomach’ or ‘after having first meal’ should also be religiously followed.